High school students should study health, biology, mathematics, keyboarding and other related courses. A high school diploma or equivalent is required. Formal programs are offered at a limited number of vocational/technical schools and colleges throughout the United States. Individuals can earn a diploma from a one-year program or an associate degree from a 2-year program. Course work may include classes in anatomy & physiology, ocular anatomy, optical properties of light and lenses, pretesting procedures, specialty testing procedures, contact lenses, and eyewear fitting. Upon completion of a formal training program, individuals may become a Certified Optometric Technician through the National Council on Paraoptometric Certification. With formal training and one year employment working with an ophthalmologist individuals may be certified as a Certified Ophthalmic Assistant through the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology.